科学研究

学术报告

RNA:从结构和化学修饰到新功能 | CIBR Seminar

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2019-08-12

Eric Alexander Miska


基因组被转录成RNA。一些RNA编码蛋白质。更多RNA直接调控基因的表达。我的小组正在研究这种RNA调控机制。为此,我们正使用从化学生物学到细胞生物学以及从计算到动物遗传学的各类工具。 最近的工作集中在(i)测定体内RNA结构,(ii)新的调控水平:tRNA和mRNA的RNA修饰(iii)RNA和转座子调控和(iv)RNA介导的遗传。我们的工作是基础研究,可以为病毒感染、代谢疾病和癌症等人类疾病研究提供参考信息。我将展示我们课题组未发表的研究结果。


Seminar Type


B-type


Preferred Location

Third Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building (Phase I)

Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing


Time

10:00-11:00  Tuesday,August 13th, 2019 


Speaker

Eric Alexander Miska, Ph.D

Deputy Director, 

Gurdon Institute

Herchel Smith Professor of Molecular Genetics, 

Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge 

Fellow and Director of Studies in Molecular Biology, 

St. John’s College, Cambridge 

Associate Faculty, 

Wellcome Sanger Institute 

Founder and Director,

STORM Therapeutics Ltd


Host

Dr. Magdalena J Koziol


Topic

RNA: from structure and chemical modification to new functions

RNA:从结构和化学修饰到新功能



Abstract

The genome is transcribed into RNA. Some RNA encodes protein. More RNA acts directly in the control of gene expression. My group is studying such RNA control mechanisms. To do this we are using a variety of tools from chemical biology to cell biology and from computation to animal genetics. Recent work has focused on (i) in vivo RNA structure determination, (ii) RNA modification of tRNA and mRNA as a new layer of control, (iii) RNA and transposon control and (iv) RNA-mediated inheritance. While our work is of a fundamental nature it impinges on human disease such as viral infection, metabolic disease and cancer. I will present unpublished work from the group.



Speaker   Biography  

Eric Alexander Miska,博士

Gurdon研究所    副所长

剑桥大学遗传系   分子遗传学系Herchel Smith冠名教授

剑桥大学圣约翰学院   研究员兼分子生物学系研究主任

维康桑格研究所   副研究员

STORM疗法有限责任公司  创始人兼董事长


Studying mathematics, physics and biology at Heidelberg, Berlin and Mainz he received a BA in Biochemistry from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1996. While a PhD student with Tony Kouzarides he characterised a novel class of histone deacetylase enzymes and received a PhD in pathology from the University of Cambridge, UK in 2000.


As a postdoc with Bob Horvitz at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology he studied the then newly-discovered class of miRNA genes in the nematode C. elegans as a major functional genomics project. He also developed the first miRNA microarray which led to the first map of miRNA expression in human cancer. 


Since establishing his own research group in 2005 at the Gurdon Institute he has continued to investigate gene regulation by non- coding RNA and other epigenetic mechanisms. Highlights include assigning biological function to some of the first animal miRNAs. Next they discovered the piRNA pathway in C. elegans. They also demonstrated that the piRNA pathway of C. elegans functions upstream of a nuclear RNAi pathway. They showed that piRNAs and nuclear RNAi lead to a mutigenerational RNA memory in C. elegans. Together with their collaborators they discovered the first virus to naturally infect C. elegans. Thus having a new host-pathogen paradigm in hand they were able to demonstrate that RNA interference provides immunity to natural viral infection in animals. They also identified an RIG-I homologue (mammalian interferon response), and an RNA-modifying enzyme (Tutase) as majoring conserved determinants of viral sensitivity. More recently they made significant contributions to our understanding of RNA structure and chemical modification in vivo including the discovery of a novel RNA modification in eukaryotes (together with Shankar Balasubramanian). 


They also led a major collaborative effort to "re-invent" African cichlids as a vertebrate model for the study of non-DNA based inheritance. Currently the Herchel Smith Professor of Molecular Genetics and Deputy Director of the Gurdon Institute, he is also the 2013 recipient of the Hooke Medal awarded by the British Society of Cell Biology.  A full member of EMBO since 2012 their work on RNA-modifying enzymes has led him to found a Cambridge University spin-out company, STORM Therapeutics Limited, which aims to deliver new medicines by targeting RNA in cancer.