Maria D. Vibranovski, Ph.D
Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology
University of São Paulo
Third Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building (Phase I)
Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing
10:00-11:00 Friday，August 23th, 2019
Dr. Li Zhang
Spermatogenesis role on the evolution of new genes
New genes can quickly assume critical roles in developmental pathways by producing essential structures. Several studies have pointed their important role in the formation of different novel traits related to sexual selection and cognitive behavior, among others. In different groups of species, new genes are majorly expressed in testis, more specifically in later phases of male gametogenesis. Our group study the role and impact of spermatogenesis - a system of great importance for survival and evolution of species that varies temporally with the development - to understand function and evolution of new genes. More specifically, we have discovered that their enhanced expression in testis is a consequence of haploid selection during the latter stages of male gametogenesis. Because emerging adaptive mutations will be fixed faster if their phenotypes are expressed by haploid rather than diploid genotypes, new genes with advantageous functions arising during this unique stage of development have a better chance to become fixed. In Drosophila, our group also investigate the impact of Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI) on the evolution and origin of new genes. The phenomenon, known as the transcriptional silencing of genes on the X chromosome in the male germline prior to meiosis, has long been hypothesized to occur in Drosophila testes. We have combined cytological data and single-cell expression profile to ask if and when MSCI occurs. In early germ cells, the ratio of sex-linked to autosomal (X:A) gene expression is balanced, and active RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is present on the X and autosomes. As spermatocytes mature, the X:A ratio decreases and active Pol II is depleted from the X chromosome. Our results not only show that MSCI does occur in Drosophila spermatogenesis, but also elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for the X chromosome regulation. Together, male germline development has important implications on the origin of new genes revealing their potential role in fertility and fecundity, as new gene meiotic and post-meiotic expression and fitness can be directly related to sperm morphogenesis and motility.
与直觉相反，新基因能够迅速在保守的发育过程中发挥关键作用。一些研究表明它们在与性选择和认知行为相关的生物功能创新中具有重要作用。在众多已研究的物种中，无一例外，新基因在睾丸中富集表达，更具体地说是在雄性配子发生的后期阶段。我们的研究聚焦在精子发生过程 - 一个对物种的生存和演化非常重要的生物过程，并且在发育不同阶段扮演不同角色 – 从而了解新基因的功能和演化。具体而言，我们证实新基因在睾丸中的富集表达是雄性配子发生的后期阶段中单倍体选择的结果。新产生的表型在与二倍体相比，单倍体具有明显的优势去固定新兴的适应性突变。毫无疑问，在精子发育阶段，有利的新基因拥有更好的固定机会。我们还研究了果蝇减数分裂前性染色体失活（MSCI）对新基因起源与演化的影响。在减数分裂前，雄性生殖细胞中X染色体上基因的转录是否会被抑制， 长期存在争议。我们通过单细胞测序来探究MSCI是否在果蝇睾丸中发生，以及何时发生。在早期生殖细胞中，性染色体基因表达与常染色体基因表达的比例（X：A）是平衡的，活性RNA聚合酶II（Pol II）同时存在于X和常染色体上。当精母细胞成熟时，X：A比率降低，活性Pol II从X染色体上消失。我们的结果不仅表明MSCI确实发生在果蝇精子发生过程中，而且还阐明了X染色体失活的分子机制。综上所述，雄性生殖细胞的发育对新基因的起源具有重要影响，这揭示了新基因在生殖方面的潜在作用。例如，新基因在减数分裂时和减数分裂后的表达和适应性与精子的形态发生和运动直接相关。
Maria D. Vibranovski is an assistant professor of Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology at University of São Paulo. She received trainings for genetics for her master’s degree and trainings for biochemistry and molecular biology for her Ph.D. degree in Brazil. Then She worked as a postdoctoral researcher in University of Chicago before she returned University of São Paulo. Maria’s major interest is centered on sexual selection especially the testes-biased expression of new genes. Her studies have elucidated the impact of Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation on the evolution of new genes. More importantly, her recent work shows that haploid selection during the latter stages of spermatogenesis play an important role of new gene evolution. Maris’s research is fundamentally important to understand how sexual selection and sex chromosome work together to fix genetic novelties, which naturally is very closely connected to the creation of functional novelties related to sexual differences.
Eric Alexander Miska：
Third Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building (Phase I)
Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing
10:00-11:00 Tuesday，August 13th, 2019
Eric Alexander Miska, Ph.D
Herchel Smith Professor of Molecular Genetics,
Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge
Fellow and Director of Studies in Molecular Biology,
St. John’s College, Cambridge
Wellcome Sanger Institute
Founder and Director,
STORM Therapeutics Ltd
Dr. Magdalena J Koziol
RNA: from structure and chemical modification to new functions
The genome is transcribed into RNA. Some RNA encodes protein. More RNA acts directly in the control of gene expression. My group is studying such RNA control mechanisms. To do this we are using a variety of tools from chemical biology to cell biology and from computation to animal genetics. Recent work has focused on (i) in vivo RNA structure determination, (ii) RNA modification of tRNA and mRNA as a new layer of control, (iii) RNA and transposon control and (iv) RNA-mediated inheritance. While our work is of a fundamental nature it impinges on human disease such as viral infection, metabolic disease and cancer. I will present unpublished work from the group.
Eric Alexander Miska，博士
剑桥大学遗传系 分子遗传学系Herchel Smith冠名教授
Studying mathematics, physics and biology at Heidelberg, Berlin and Mainz he received a BA in Biochemistry from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1996. While a PhD student with Tony Kouzarides he characterised a novel class of histone deacetylase enzymes and received a PhD in pathology from the University of Cambridge, UK in 2000.
As a postdoc with Bob Horvitz at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology he studied the then newly-discovered class of miRNA genes in the nematode C. elegans as a major functional genomics project. He also developed the first miRNA microarray which led to the first map of miRNA expression in human cancer.
Since establishing his own research group in 2005 at the Gurdon Institute he has continued to investigate gene regulation by non- coding RNA and other epigenetic mechanisms. Highlights include assigning biological function to some of the first animal miRNAs. Next they discovered the piRNA pathway in C. elegans. They also demonstrated that the piRNA pathway of C. elegans functions upstream of a nuclear RNAi pathway. They showed that piRNAs and nuclear RNAi lead to a mutigenerational RNA memory in C. elegans. Together with their collaborators they discovered the first virus to naturally infect C. elegans. Thus having a new host-pathogen paradigm in hand they were able to demonstrate that RNA interference provides immunity to natural viral infection in animals. They also identified an RIG-I homologue (mammalian interferon response), and an RNA-modifying enzyme (Tutase) as majoring conserved determinants of viral sensitivity. More recently they made significant contributions to our understanding of RNA structure and chemical modification in vivo including the discovery of a novel RNA modification in eukaryotes (together with Shankar Balasubramanian).
They also led a major collaborative effort to "re-invent" African cichlids as a vertebrate model for the study of non-DNA based inheritance. Currently the Herchel Smith Professor of Molecular Genetics and Deputy Director of the Gurdon Institute, he is also the 2013 recipient of the Hooke Medal awarded by the British Society of Cell Biology. A full member of EMBO since 2012 their work on RNA-modifying enzymes has led him to found a Cambridge University spin-out company, STORM Therapeutics Limited, which aims to deliver new medicines by targeting RNA in cancer.
气味感知发育的关键期：分子机制和行为效应 | CIBR Seminar
俞从容，1990年于清华大学获得学士学位，1996年美国哥伦比亚大学获得博士学位，之后在诺贝尔奖得主Richard Axel实验室工作。现为美国堪萨斯大学副教授，Stowers研究所研究员。主要领域为嗅觉神经生物学，嗅觉和信息素的信号传导、编码及神经回路，发育关键期的分子基础及干细胞分化。在Nature、Science、Cell、PNAS、Nature Communications、 Neuron、Current Biology、 eLife 、Journal of Neuroscience 等国际著名学术期刊发表论文31篇。目前同时获得3个R01基金的资助。担任美国国立卫生院、美国国家科学基金会、HFSP、意大利卫生部、美国-以色列联合科学基金委等基金的评审专家，Nature、Science、Cell、PNAS等国际著名学术期刊的审稿专家。获得“荧光鼠模型”等三项专利。
First Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building (Phase I)Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing
10:30-11:30 am Friday，July 19, 2019
Congrong “Ron” Yu, Ph.D
Stowers Institute for Medical Research
Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology
The University of Kansas School of Medicine
Dr. Minmin Luo
Critical Period in the Development of the Sense of Smell: Mechanisms and Behavioral Consequences
The critical period is a developmental window during which sensory experience have lasting impact on the anatomical connection and functions of neural circuits. In the mammalian species, the olfactory system is the only nervous system that continuously generate new neurons throughout the life of the animals. This unique characteristic suggests that the olfactory neurons may hold a secret of regenerative capacity that is lost in other neurons. In this regenerative nervous system, we discover a critical period in setting up the highly specific connections between sensory neurons and their central targets. Despite massive neurogenesis during the postnatal development, we found only a population of perinatally born sensory neurons are endowed with the ability to set the olfactory map, and to correct erroneously projecting axons. Here I will discuss the behavioral implication of a critical period in the olfactory system development, the identification of a population of navigator neurons during the critical period, the cellular mechanisms by which the navigators establish the olfactory map, and the molecular mechanism that control the timing of the critical period
工业级全脑神经元形态扫描 | CIBR学术报告
SEU-ALLEN Joint Center; Affiliate/Adjunct Professor,
University of Washington (USA), University of Georgia (USA), Southeast University (China);
American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering
尽管近年来脑细胞3D形态的自动追踪取得了实质性进展，但是将现有算法应用于包含数十亿或更多体素的非常大的图像数据集是具有挑战性的，特别是对于诸如整个大脑尺度的单个神经元的形态测量的应用。我们开发了一个新平台，结合了几种新开发的技术，包括Vaa3D（Nature Biotechnology 2010; Nature Protocols，2014），TeraFly（Nature Methods，2016），UltraTracer（Nature Methods，2017）和TeraVR，以尝试这一挑战。具体做法是，我们使用TeraFly调用Vaa3D来快速可视化小鼠整个脑部成像体积并管理每个脑体积中的数万亿个体素。然后，我们使用UltraTracer包装几个有效的基本跟踪器来跟踪如此庞大的数据量。最后，我们将虚拟现实和机器学习结合到一个名为TeraVR的工具中，用于高效校对和编辑重建的神经元形态。我们正在进一步改进这些工具的集成，以实现更标准化和更准确的单神经元形态测量。
First Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building (Phase I)
Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing
10:30-11:30 am Wednesday，July 10, 2019
Dr. Minmin Luo
Industrial Level Full Neuron Morphology Screening of Whole Brains
Despite substantial advancement in the automatic tracing of brain cells' 3D morphology in recent years, it is challenging to apply existing algorithms to very large image datasets containing billions or more voxels, especially for applications such as morphometry of single neurons at the whole brain scale. We have developed a new platform combining several newly developed technologies including Vaa3D (Nature Biotechnology 2010; Nature Protocols, 2014), TeraFly (Nature Methods, 2016), UltraTracer (Nature Methods, 2017), and TeraVR, to attempt this challenge. Particularly, we have used TeraFly to invoke Vaa3D to quickly visualize the whole mouse brain image volume and manage the thousands of billions of voxels in each of the brain volume. We then used UltraTracer to wrap several efficient base tracers to trace such massive data volumes. Finally, we combined virtual reality and machine learning into a tool called TeraVR for efficient proofreading and editing of such reconstructed neuron morphology. We are further improving the integration of these tools for more scalable and accurate single neuron morphometry.
Hanchuan Peng develops revolutionary technologies to generate, manage, visualize, analyze, and understand massive-scale structure and function data related to brains. Peng also led the Big Image Mining team at Janelia, HHMI (2006-2012). Peng is a highly cited inventor of a number of new algorithms and software/hardware systems, including Vaa3D - a widely adopted high-performance platform for very large multi-dimensional images (Nature Biotechnology 2010; Nature Protocols, 2014; Nature Communications, 2014, 2019; Nature Methods, 2016, 2017), BrainAligner (Nature Methods, 2011), SmartScope (Nature Communications, 2014; Scientific Reports, 2017), mRMR (IEEE-TPAMI, 2005; a top-10 most cited paper in TPAMI since 2005), etc. He built/co-worked the first digital maps for several widely used model systems at single cell/neurite resolution (C. elegans - Nature Methods, 2009; Cell, 2009; fruitfly - Nature Methods, 2011; mouse – Nature 2014; Nature Neuroscience 2019), and led the “BigNeuron” initiative (http://bigneuron.org; Neuron, 2015). Peng was inducted into AIMBE (2019), a co-recipient of USA National Academy of Sciences’ Cozzarelli Prize (2013), DIADEM award (2010), SfN’2018 Hot Topic (2018), etc. His work has been featured in Nature, Science, NPR, NBC, etc. Peng founded Bioimage Informatics conferences (http://bioimageinformatics.org), helped iconize Bioimage Informatics as a new field in major bioinformatics journals including Bioinformatics, BMC Bioinformatics, Nature Methods, Nature Biotechnology, etc. He currently serves as the co-Editor-in-Chief of the journal Brain Informatics (2016-) and associate editors of a number of journals; he just retired from the Section Chief Editor of BMC Bioinformatics (2011-2018) overseeing the section of imaging, bioimage analysis, and data visualization
这是一个由社交活动构建的世界。我们不断地参与并从根本上受到广泛而复杂的社会互动的影响。所有有性繁殖的动物物种都表现出冲突或合作的同类社会行为，这对动物的健康、生存和繁殖至关重要。 反过来，社会功能受损是很多神经精神疾病的突出特征。 我们采用了多学科交叉的实验技术和计算技术，跨越分子、环路和行为三个水平探究社会行为的神经机制。
Preferred Location：First Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building (Phase I) Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing
Time：14:00-15:00 pm Tuesday，July 9, 2019
Speaker：Weizhe Hong, PhD
Department of Biological Chemistry Department of Neurobiology
David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA
Host：Dr. Minmin Luo
Topic：Understanding the Social Brain
Abstract：We live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and we are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by all sexually reproducing animal species and are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders. We study the neural mechanism of social behavior across molecular, circuit, and behavioral levels, and we take a multi-disciplinary approach by utilizing a wide variety of experimental and computational techniques.
Speaker Biography：Dr. Hong is currently an Assistant Professor at the Department of Biological Chemistry and the Department of Neurobiology at the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine (since 2016). Starting from the first year in high school, he worked with Prof. Zengyi Chang, on biochemical mechanisms underlying protein folding and aggregation, first at Tsinghua University (2000-2004) and then at Peking University (2004-2006). He also worked at the National Institute of Biological Sciences in Beijing for one year during 2005-2006. Dr. Hong received a B.S. degree in biology in 2006 at Tsinghua University. Dr. Hong received his PhD degree in 2012 at Stanford University, working with his advisor Prof. Liqun Luo on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of wiring specificity during olfactory system development. He was a Helen Hay Whitney Postdoctoral Fellow at the California Institute of Technology during 2012-2015, working with his advisor Prof. David Anderson on neural mechanisms underlying social and emotional behaviors. Dr. Hong has received numerous awards, including Packard Fellowship in Science and Engineering, McKnight Scholar, Searle Scholar, Sloan Research Fellowship, Category Winner of Science & SciLifeLab Prize for Young Scientists, Larry Sandler Memorial Award, and Larry Katz Memorial Lecture.
“Brain & Behavior Forum” is an international Youth Scholar Forum hosted by Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing (CIBR)，which aims to attract more young talents to come to CIBR.
Third Floor Lecture Hall, Jianzan Building(Phase I)
Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing
Wednesday, Jun 19, 2019
Misha B. Ahrens, PhD
Janelia Group Leader,
Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Brain states and memory in zebrafish
As animals navigate complex environments, their reactions to identical stimuli can change according to their recent experience. Such changing behavioral states gives rise to flexibility in behavior beneficial to survival. We investigated the mechanistic origins of three such behavioral states, which depended on whether animals experienced (1) successful outcomes of actions, (2) unsuccessful outcomes of actions, (3) sensory input during inactivity. We found that actions (swimming) with successful outcomes (visual flow) are encoded by the serotonergic system, lead to motor learning, and are detected by a gating mechanism in individual serotonergic neurons based on rebound from hyperpolarization. On the other hand, actions with unsuccessful outcomes (swimming that does not trigger visual flow) are encoded by the noradrenergic system, integrated by astrocytes, and eventually trigger a passive behavioral state. Finally, sensory signals that enter the brain before actions drive a memory in a network of inhibitory brainstem neurons which set an alertness state that determines reaction time to future sensory input. Thus, sensory input is ‘routed’ to distinct neuromodulatory systems depending on its temporal relationship to actions, each leading to distinct behavioral states. This work suggests action-timing-dependent routing of sensory signals to different neuromodulatory centers as one of the principles for how an animal’s past experience determines its future behavior
Misha Ahrens joined Janelia in the fall of 2012, researching systems neuroscience in zebrafish. He completed his BA in mathematics and physics at Cambridge University, and his PhD in computational neuroscience at the Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, at University College London. From 2009 to 2012 he was a Sir Henry Wellcome Postdoctoral Fellow, working in the Engert Lab, at Harvard University.
Social interactions regulates song perception in juvenile zebra finches during song learning
Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama, PhD
Principal Investigator, Associate Professor
Development Project Associate Professor
Neuronal Mechanism for Critical Period Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University
International Research Center for Neurointelligence (IRCN), The University of Tokyo
Juvenile zebra finches learn to sing through vocal communications with their adult tutors. Song learning improves through social interactions with tutors, compared to passive listening to recorded tutor song playbacks. This suggests that high attention level, induced by social interactions with tutors, enhances song learning. We investigated whether social interactions change attention level and how that change affects song learning by recording activities of neurons in the attention control brain area, the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), and the higher auditory area, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), where tutor song memories are suggested to be stored. We found that both LC and NCM neurons responded more intensely to live tutor singing than to TUT playbacks. Anatomical analysis showed that LC neurons, which were activated by exposure to live tutor singing, project to the NCM. Taken together, we suggest that social interactions with tutors modulate neuronal activity of the LC, which affects selective auditory responses of the NCM neurons, resulting in tutor song memory formation.
Dr. Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama earned a Ph.D. from Sophia University on the neuroethological studies of quail vocal behavior. She started songbird study at my first postdoctoral fellowship in Rich Mooney’s lab at Duke University and then examined critical period neuronal mechanisms at Takao Hensch’s lab at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute before moving to an independent position at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University and subsequently to The University of Tokyo.
Her study mainly focus on Neuronal Circuits Shaped by Early Experience for Learning Behaviors. The brain’s neuronal circuits are shaped by sensory experiences from the environment in early life. The wiring of neuronal circuits in this early critical period are essential to control the later development of higher cognitive functions. As human babies learn to speak from what they hear, songbirds learn to sing from what they listen to in the critical period developmental time window. Songbird song learning from auditory experiences include many interesting questions such as: how do they detect their own species songs and learn from them? How can they selectively learn from specific birds, normally their fathers, from the variety of songs they hear? Why do they learn only during a specific period of time during development? Her lab is tackling these questions and hope to understand how our nascent brain circuits make such intelligence possible.